In the Not all computer parts are created equal, even if they are the exact same part. Lets say you have an i9 9900K processor and your friend has the exact same processor. You attempt to overclock it to 5.0 ghz. (5000 mhz.) on all the cores, but your computer constantly crashes during gaming and graphic design workloads. You have the EXACT same build as your friend. You both have the SAME motherboard, processor, cooler, case, RAM, graphics card, power supply, etc. Your friend's i9 9900K can overclock to 5.0 ghz. no problem at 1.42 V and 80 degrees Celsius max temperature. Your i9 9900K can only overclock to 4.8 ghz. (4800 mhz.) on all cores at 1.43 V. and the max temperature is 85 degrees Celsius. Why is that?
The answer is "The Silicone Lottery." Intel and AMD have to bid to buy silicone wafers (imagine a thin slab of silicone 1 ft. x 1 ft. or bigger) from manufacturers in order to make their processors. Each wafer/set of wafers has a certain purity level (Purity levels are based on how much of the wafer is "PURE Silicone" and how much of it has impurities like small bits of bad metal alloys or other debris). Lets say Intel buys 10 silicone wafers at 85% purity level for their i9 9900K. Let's pretend that Intel can produce 10,000 i9 9900Ks from the 10 wafers. Then 6 months later Intel sells nearly all their i9 9900Ks. Now they need to buy more silicone wafers to make more processors. This time AMD bids higher than Intel at the auction, and AMD buys the 10 wafers at 85% purity. Now Intel is forced buy lower quality silicone wafers at 80% purity.
So even though you and your friend both have i9 9900Ks, their purity levels are probably different. Hence the reason why one i9 9900K may overclock better, require less voltage, and run at a much cooler temperature than another i9 9900K.
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